 MAIN INDEX DOCUMENTS VIDEOS SAMPLE APPLICATIONS INTEGRAL PROJECTIONS PROCESSING PROBLEMS INTEGRAL PROJECTIONS An integral projection is a one-dimensional pattern, or signal, obtained through the sum of a given set of pixels along a given direction. Horizontal and vertical integral projections are most commonly used, although they can be applied on any direction. Let i(x,y) be an image (greyscale or color) and R(i) a region in it (i.e., a set of pixels in i(x,y)), the Vertical Integral Projection of R(i), denoted by PVR(i), is a discrete function: PVR(i) : {ymin, ..., ymax} ® R Defined by: PVR(i) (y) = Mean(i(x,y)); " (x,y) Î R(i) The Horizontal Integral Projection of R(i), denoted by PHR(i), is defined in a similar way: PHR(i) : {xmin, ..., xmax} ® R PHR(i) (x) = Mean(i(x,y)), " (x,y) Î R(i) The Integral Projection Along an Arbitrary Angle a, denoted by PaR(i), is defined as the vertical integral projection of R(i), after applying to the image a rotation of a. Sample image, with vertical (right) and horizontal (down) integral projections. Projection Models   Rapid Alignment of Integral Projections  Facultad de Informática. Despacho 2.34 Campus de Espinardo. Universidad de Murcia 30100 Espinardo, Murcia (SPAIN) Teléfono: +34 968 39 85 30 Fax: +34 968 36 41 51 E-mail: ginesgm@um.es